submitted by victhroway1234532 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]
Hi All, I wasn't sure where to post this or who to ask so I'm putting out to the community to see if anyone here may know what exactly is happening. As of about a minute ago I noted a large discrepancy between my person node's count vs. what blockstream dot com is show as far as the bitcoin block height (it said 630734 vs. my 630732). To me there should not be a 2 block delta but I'm not the expert there. Do anyone here know how or why this would be the case? It seems quite concerning to me. Thanks in advance for you help here~submitted by BitcoinCanSaveUsAll to Bitcoin [link] [comments]
removed screen shot and my block is now in synch. Thanks to all who commented.
submitted by bitcoinSCofficial to BitcoinSCofficial [link] [comments]
Written by Steven M.
To help understand the upcoming Bitcoin SC hard fork, this article will compare the hard forks for Bitcoin Cash (ABC) and Bitcoin Satoshi Vision, review the technical approach and parameters for these forks, and compare with Bitcoin SC’s approach.
Intro to Hard Forks
Blockchain hard forks happen when protocol or consensus rules are updated in node software to produce blocks and transactions that are not compatible with non-updated versions of nodes. This is generally described as the software not being “backward compatible” which is a bit of a misnomer, since the new version nodes are compatible with older blocks and transactions, thus preserving the full history of a blockchain. Node software enforces the protocol change at a block height certain. What is incompatible after a hard fork is the blocks going forward. After a hard fork, the blockchain is split and exists as two blockchains with separate characteristics.
For “consensus” hard forks, where the community agrees on the updates to a blockchain, a single “official” new blockchain will continue after the hard fork, and perhaps a split chain for laggards who didn’t update in time. However, if there is developer support for both chains after a hard fork, and technology — business — community interest in supporting two versions of the blockchain, the hard fork will give two blockchains going forward.
This report compares three blockchain splits from hard forks which are shown schematically below.
This timeline shows the Bitcoin Cash split from Bitcoin was on August 1, 2017, the Bitcoin SV split from Bitcoin Cash on November 15, 2018, and Bitcoin SC will split from Bitcoin in the June timeframe at a block height TBD.
Next, consideration of some of the technical issues for these hard forks.
Block size is an important parameter in blockchain configuration since it controls scaling for transaction capacity, transactions per second, and node requirements. Block size has been a contentious issue in the blockchain community and has been a motivating factor for past chain splits.
Table 1 - Block Size
Bitcoin launched with a 1.0 MB block size, and has retained this size although adjustments using block “weight” for SegWit transactions allow larger blocks. Bitcoin Cash launched with an initial block size of 8 MB, and hard forked in May 2018 to a size of 32 MB.
Bitcoin SV features very large blocks, launched with 128 MB, and implemented the Quasar protocol in July 2019 allowing blocks up to 2 GB.
Bitcoin SC will launch with 2.0 MB blocks and is scalable up to 32 MB size (plus the SegWit “weight” adjustment).
Another way to examine block size and TPS is to see actual usage of blocks on-chain. Blockchains are occasionally overloaded, but most run at a lesser capacity than full blocks.
getchaintxstats give some statistics for the blockchain capacity usage over the past 4,320 blocks or 30 days. Table 2 gives transactions during the last 30 days (window_tx_count) and TPS (txrate) and shows an actual usage rate over the last month of 3.4 TPS for Bitcoin, 0.5 TPS for Bitcoin Cash and 6.3 TPS for Bitcoin SV.
Table 2 - getchainxstats
The commonly used value for Bitcoin TPS is 4, implying a transaction size of 417 bytes, and using SegWit transactions would give higher throughput. Bitcoin SC with 2 MB block size would give 2x Bitcoin TPS.
Block Height DeltaAs you know, difficulty is adjusted every 2,016 blocks (~ 2 weeks) to maintain the 10-minute block spacing. In a perfect world, after splitting from the Bitcoin blockchain, the split chains would run block height roughly in sync with Bitcoin block height. However, various tweaks attempting to improve difficulty adjustment can decouple block height on the split chains.
By definition, at the hard fork block height, the main chain and split chain are exactly in sync. There are minimal practical issues with these different block heights, although it is nice when software does what you are expecting for block spacing. Perhaps the only implication for different block heights is that halvings will occur at different times, so more for reference, the approximate block height offsets are shown below.
Table 3 - Block Height Offset
Again, the practical implication of these block height offsets is that Bitcoin Cash and Bitcoin SV will reach their halvings a little over a month earlier than Bitcoin.
Bitcoin SC may use a more frequent and gentler difficulty adjustment algo, effectively tracking closer to the Bitcoin block height.
Since the addresses, private keys and coins are otherwise identical between Bitcoin and a forked chain, developers of the new split chain can add replay protection. Without replay protection, a signed transaction from one chain will validate and execute on the split chain in a “replay attack”, as Ethereum discovered in 2016.
Bitcoin Cash added replay protection in their hard fork by adding a marker so that signatures wouldn’t match between Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash (two-way replay protection). Bitcoin SV did not initially add replay protection (for philosophical reasons). Bitcoin SC will add replay protection using a modified signature similar to Bitcoin Cash.
Opcodes and Bytecodes
Bitcoin and its forks use script opcodes for basic programming operations executed on a stack. By design, script has limited capability for safety and of the ~100 opcodes available, relatively few are used for normal transactions (pay2pubkeyhash, multi-sig, etc.).
Table 4 - Opcodes
There is a slight variation in opcodes between these projects. Table 4 shows the count in current release GetOpName() function. The Bitcoin SV count includes 16 opcodes (OP_1 — OP16) for pushing onto the stack but otherwise is in the same size range as Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash.
Bitcoin SC, forked from Bitcoin v0.19, will include additional opcodes for interfacing with the smart contract layer, which will offer Turing-complete on-chain smart contract execution with ~100 bytecodes (e.g., a Constantinople-class virtual machine). In contrast to Bitcoin and these other forks, Bitcoin SC is a fully programmable blockchain, capable of running on-chain applications such as decentralized exchanges and DeFi solutions.
More info and sign your support for Bitcoin SC https://bsc.net/
Another kind of hard fork: American Gothic, Grant Wood, 1930
|submitted by thacypha to bitcoinsv [link] [comments]|
Cryptocurrency, also known as digital currency and virtual currency, is a kind of monetary system represented by BTC, which is based on public account technology. *submitted by jieke66 to u/jieke66 [link] [comments]
According to coinmarketcap, there are 2,473 cryptocurrencies and more than 400 exchanges in the world. The global market value is about $260 billion.
In 2019, the cryptocurrency field showed its strong vitality. It has been more than 11 years since Satoshi Nakamoto published the whitepaper of bitcoin in 2008, and the blockchain technology has derived tokenize, STO (Security Token Offering), IOT (Internet of things), product traceability, financial derivatives (share option, future goods, prompt goods) and other industrial applications from the initial peer-to-peer electronic cash.
This paper focuses on the anonymity of cryptocurrency, so it divides cryptocurrency into 'non-anonymous cryptocurrency' and 'anonymous cryptocurrency' to discuss and research.
The merits and demerits of non-anonymous cryptocurrency
First of all, we have to admit that the non-anonymous currency does not mean the real name and all the non-anonymous currencies have a certain degree of anonymity, which is embodied with its address (it can be regarded as the bank card number) that consists of dozens of letters and numbers. The blockchain browser allows us to track the past transaction records and the amount of coin held in each address.
[The bitcoin blockchain browser data, from blockchaininfo]
The above is the partial transaction packaged by bitcoin block height #591204 on 7: 49, 22 August, 2019, New York time. We can clearly see the both parties’ addresses, transaction amount and gas fee. If you click any address, you can check any past transactions of this address.
Open and transparent account has its scientific basis, which has the following advantages: reducing the cost of trust; collective maintenance to reduce the centralized risk; reliable database and its source is always available and traceable.
But behind value shaping is the price that must be paid.
We can assume that if an address sends a transaction for illegal purposes, and the address is put on the watchlist of the law enforcement, does it mean that all transactions passing through this addresses will be affected? If I receive these bitcoins through normal transactions without knowing it, does it mean that I, as an ordinary person, will be forced to get involved?
Secondly, every time we send a transaction, my balance is known to others. If I hold a large amount of bitcoin and both parties know each other's identity, who will guarantee my personal safety? Some people have proposed the decentralized management of bitcoin. Have you ever thought about the cost of secure storage of decentralized management? And with the technology development, in the future, the big data technology will not be difficult to crack the holders by behavior analysis and address transaction trajectory analysis.
Anonymous cryptocurrency is coming
In April 2014, monero(XMR)* was officially launched, focusing on privacy, decentralization and scalability. Unlike many cryptocurrencies derived from bitcoin, Monero is based on the CryptoNote protocol and has significant algorithm differences in block chain fuzzification.
On 10 January, 2017, by using the Ring Confidential Transactions algorithm of Gregory Maxwell, a Bitcoin Core developer, the privacy of monero transactions was further enhanced from #1220516 block. The ring signature algorithm does not reveal the amount involved in a transaction to people who are not directly involved in the transaction, thus increasing the confidentiality.
The above is monero memorabilia on privacy protection. There are three aspects of its privacy: privacy
ring signature - sender, untraceable
aliasing address - receiver, unlinkable
ring confidentiality - hiding transaction amount
Monroe is at the top of improving privacy and anonymity. It perfectly solves the privacy problem of the bitcoin network. We can understand that each transaction you receive or send can be effectively confirmed by only you and your counterparty.
[The monero blockchain browser, from moneroblocksinfo]
So menlo became a hotbed of illicit trade and the target of public criticism --
On 18 March, 2018, Coincheck said it would remove three anonymous cryptocurrencies: XMR, DASH and ZEC. Many other exchanges in Korea and Japan also removed such cryptocurrencies with untraceable and anonymous transmission and transaction ability such as XMR, ZEC, DASH and so on, which is speculated to be related to the requirements of government regulators.
To find a balance between anonymity and non-anonymity
In July 2019, cryptozoic(VCC)* was born. Its original ‘aliasing anonymous mechanism’ and ability compatible with ‘semi-anonymous digital currency’of ETH (Ethereum) have been making waves in the digital currency industry.
According to the Cryptozoic(VCC) whitepaper, cryptozoic is a DApp operating environment compatible with ethereum. In addition, it has distributed anonymous computing systems beyond BTC and ETH. The anonymous blockchain system adopts UTXO model +DAG and virtual machine program to write and execute smart contract.
Anonymity + Public Verifiability
[The VCC blockchain browser, from vccscancom]
As can be seen from the figure above, in the blockchain transaction of VCC network, the sender's address is hidden and the receiver's address is displayed. We can still check the balance data by clicking the receiver's address. But for the transaction record, outsiders cannot access accurate data except for the owner of the address. In this way, VCC has a place between absolute anonymity and absolute transparency: public verification + law enforcement review. At this point, VCC has taken a unique step forward.
High Concurrency + High Scalability
Pure POW mining coins like bitcoin, are limited by the block time and block size, so their TPS are very limited, which can handle only seven transactions per second on average. In 2017, CryptoKitties, a popular blockchain game based on ethereum, was jammed for hours due to the huge number of participants. VCC, combined with the mining advantages of DPOS+POW, maintains the transaction rate with DPOS super node on the premise of ensuring the fairness of POW, which theoretically can reach 80,000 transactions per second and perfectly solves the problem of transaction congestion.
VCC adopts directed acyclic graph (DAG) *, which is a promising new approach to scalability problems and is considered considered as the solution of machine-to-machine economy(M2M).
DAG allows multiple blockchains to coexist and to connect to each other without an edge with the parent node. Nodes can exist in parallel as long as information is directed in the same way. It opens a whole new set of possible confirmation options to eliminate the need for block time and reduce the amount of work wasted on abandoned [isolated chain]. The final result is that: there is huge potential for highly scalability and fast information flows on the completely decentralized network.
Conclusion: the absolute transparency may hurt the innocent, while the absolute anonymous protection becomes the hotbed of illegal industry. Perhaps the future of cryptocurrencies can be found in VCC (Crypotozoic), which is a fabulous non-absolute anonymous and highly scalable digital currency.
*Introduction to Algorithms
|submitted by Tokenncoin to Tokenncoin [link] [comments]|
Cryptocurrency has been a global phenomenon. However, there is an inherent issue with the concept. The slower functionality and higher transaction charges are the two concerns being addressed with the aid of Lightning Bitcoin which forked on December 18, 2017. The Forked crypto coin is set to launch Smart Contracts and Zero Knowledge Proof in 2019.submitted by Akitori to LightningBTC [link] [comments]
Lightning Bitcoin – A Complete hard fork of Bitcoin blockchainThe Lightning Bitcoin is the unique coin that adopts DPoS Consensus mechanism. The technology aims at improving the concept of bitcoin and solving the problems associated with centralization of miners and network congestion you would have observed in Bitcoin Blockchain.
Lightning Bitcoin itself should be indicative of the fast transaction speed as compared to the regular Bitcoin features. As Dan Larimer, the creator of DPoS consensus mechanism claims “This design was chosen to ensure that delegates technically have no direct power and that all changes to the network parameters are ultimately approved by the stakeholders”.
What makes LBTC a unique project is the DPoS Consensus Mechanism it adopts. It reduces the negative effects algorithm from PoW consensus mechanism, which is congestion and centralization. In fact, it offers a better solution for network decentralization, which leverages the power of stakeholder approval voting to resolve consensus issues democratically. This can go a long way in enhancing the profits for the coin holders – whether promoters or investors and the complete efficiency of the network. The DPoS consensus lets the network get an improved transaction speed as a result of the enhanced consensus speed.
In fact, DPoS gives a specific schedule for the addition of next block to the blockchain. Thus you would not need specialized computers for solving mathematical algorithms in sharp contrast to PoW. Moreover, it reduces the chances of centralisation, unlike PoW where anyone with huge mining capacity has the options to form centralized mechanism. DPoS lets the coin holders choose who can validate the transactions. This improves the transaction performance and a high degree of decentralization.
The Lightning Bitcoin forked at the Bitcoin block height 499,999 on December 18th, 2017. The mainnet launched in February 2018. Currently, Lightning Bitcoin is actively developing core technology part and expanding its presence on cryptocurrency exchanges. LBTC has already been listed on six exchanges like CoinEgg, BTCTrade and supported by Cobo and Bitpie mobile wallets. Future development steps imply addition of creating smart contracts and DApps on the Lightning Bitcoin networks that would allow an alternative solution for the cross-chain atomic transaction.
What’s unique about Lightning Bitcoin’s DPoSDPoS Consensus is what makes LBTC stand out from the rest of the Bitcoin forks. What exactly is DPoS and how does it benefit Lightning Bitcoin? Well, DPoS refers to the Delegated Proof of Stake. It offers the power of voting to the token holders to delegate the right of bookkeeping to trusted nodes and thus works along the lines of true democracy.
What we mean by democracy is the fact that it completely decentralizes the entire bitcoin network. There is no central power that controls the miners or the functioning of the network. However, the dynamic structure of 101 trusted delegates that keep turns in forging blocks. To borrow the words of LTBC itself, “DPOS consensus significantly reduces the number of participating verification nodes, 101 nodes in case of LBTC, and help LBTC reach consensus in seconds and boost the transaction speed to be as fast as lighting really”. LBTC works with instant transaction verification mechanism. The transactions are verified within block forging time, which is 3 seconds. This instant verification is excellent for a swapping vast and small amount of coins with low transaction costs.
The Future AheadThe LBTC network is still under development. It is quite easy to get into the delegates board right away. If you want to be one of the delegates, you just need to meet the technical requirements, pay your registration fees and get a sufficient number of votes to qualify for the top 101 list – no need for coin lock up or network checks of any kind.
To prevent the network centralization by the delegate pool, there will be an integration of delegate committee system and lightning nodes elections. This will set requirements on coins lock up like it is in EOS or Vechain, delegates will have to provide information about their profiles thus turning the voting process into clear transparent mechanism based on delegate weight in the community.
In any case, we would look at Lightning Bitcoin as an attempt at an enhanced network with the all-powerful and democratically correct DPoS Consensus that makes the forked Bitcoin service one of the excellent alternatives to the host of Bitcoin clones you may come across while looking to invest in the cryptocurrency arena. From that perspective, it is indeed something we will have a close look at. Of course, there is no whitepaper available as yet, but we would indeed foresee a great future for the most democratic version of the cryptocurrency and a forked Bitcoin network that would indeed offer the best investment options.
|submitted by satoshi_vision to bitcoincashSV [link] [comments]|
|submitted by juscamarena to Bitcoin [link] [comments]|
submitted by mrslappyfist to btc [link] [comments]
|submitted by DjDivulgence to bitcoincashSV [link] [comments]|
f(x0,y0,z0)=x1 where x1
The function is a digest algorithm (irreversible). x0 is given diff0 through n is given. y is random number (transaction data) which is given. z is to be found.
I was surprised at how simple this turned out, and from there I was able to explain how difficulty is set, 51% attacks, the decentralized nature of bitcoin, block height, size and propagation problems.
I thought it might help some others.
I think I may have made the first live OpenBazaar 2 sale earlier this morning (confirmed as probably the case by an OB Dev)
Here is my store in case you are interested in checking out my party game which is now for sale:
This game is for sale exclusively on Openbazaar
Transaction details: https://blockchain.info/tx/d38749fd9f1ec5db054c8efc4a1669058ee9451bc11908598a2eb1c12daf6c83 Current Bitcoin block Height: 484477 Hash: 0000000000000000001392c308095344620baab2eb7e160a1ae8c7dd0af0330d
Payment received and order being fulfilled as we speak - new OB has worked very smoothly so far, massive improvements all round.
The chat function is awesome and I could chat to the buyer at the time of sale.
Excellent work guys...really exciting tech. Many thanks!
Barnslig Bazaar Broz Games
|submitted by money78 to bsv [link] [comments]|
|submitted by LightningPlus to Bitcoin [link] [comments]|
Ethereum Block Height, Source: Etherchain.org. Conversely, the current block height of the Ethereum protocol is 6,158,794. Ethereum’s block generation time of 15 seconds, i.e. new blocks being added to the Ethereum blockchain at a rate of 1 block every 15 seconds, means that even though the Ethereum protocol was launched in 2015, whereas the Bitcoin protocol was launched in 2009, its quicker ... These blocks are commonly addressed by their block height —the number of blocks between them and the first Bitcoin block (block 0, most commonly known as the genesis block). For example, block 2016 is where difficulty could have first been adjusted. Common And Uncommon Block Chain Forks ¶ Multiple blocks can all have the same block height, as is common when two or more miners each produce a ... All blocks with a block height less than 6,930,000 are entitled to receive a block subsidy of newly created bitcoin value, which also should be spent in the coinbase transaction. (The block subsidy started at 50 bitcoins and is being halved every 210,000 blocks—approximately once every four years. As of November 2017, it’s 12.5 bitcoins.) Together, the transaction fees and block subsidy ... For example the block height of Bitcoin is #545,125 and its block time is roughly 10 minutes. Now to calculate how long Bitcoin is approximately been around just multiply block height by block time. Also by estimating block height and block time is how developers announce the approximate date and time in which the network upgrade is going to take place. This block height is not something ... The most popular and trusted block explorer and crypto transaction search engine.
[index]          
This video shows a visualization of the hashes of the blocks on the Bitcoin blockchain which shows the difficulty increasing over time. Scripts used to produce output: Script 1 to export data from ... Bitcoin Diamond is building a better future by implementing Segwit Technology to optimize the Bitcoin Blockchain. The Bitcoin Diamond Fork occurred at Block Height 495866 Bitcoin supply is more ... Know about how many blocks have been minded so far. and who was the miner of that block. Simply explained bitcoin blockchain tutorial. Bitcoin so sicher wie nie verwahren - https://amzn.to/2JVWhkD Alle 60 min kostenlose Bitcoins bekommen - http://bit.ly/2XeWKX3 -----Mehr inter... Celer Network - Taking Blockchain to New Heights The Crypto Lark. Loading... Unsubscribe from The Crypto Lark? ... Bitcoin Mining Crisis Explained - Halving Price Pain Coming? - Duration: 41:59 ...