The latest developments from the US interest rate policies do not have much influence on Vietnam.submitted by Ill_Preparation_2814 to u/Ill_Preparation_2814 [link] [comments]
The home loan interest rate of 5% will be applied from 1/1/2018
Interest rates will stabilize and tend to decrease
Stable interest rate expectation
Solution of interest rate management with economic growth target
Improve the financial capacity of Vietnamese commercial banks
The move was not unexpected
The US Federal Open Market Commission (FOMC) ended 2017 with the third prime rate hike for the year, to 1.5%. This move did not surprise the international financial world, as the market had been forecasted in advance. Similarly, the latest developments from the US have not affected Vietnam much, even through 2017.
According to SSI Securities Company, the Fed rate hike did not have any noticeable impact on the global market, as the market has "absorbed" this move since September, after two adjustments of Fed this year.
The Fed's interest rates often directly affect interest rates and exchange rates in Vietnam. However, from the beginning of the year until now, interest rates and exchange rates have not changed much. According to the report of the National Financial Supervisory Commission on the economic situation in the first 11 months of the year, the interest rates of ordinary loans are popular at 9.3-11% for terms of 6 months or more. While the ceiling interest rate for short-term loans in 5 priority areas is 6.5%.
Place of credit conversion transaction: btc to paypal
Meanwhile, according to the State Bank branch report. In Ho Chi Minh City, the central bank's operating interest rate in 2017 tended to decrease. Specifically, the refinancing rate decreased by 25 basis points, to 6.25%; paper discount rate has a similar decrease, to 4.25%.
The exchange rate market also exhibits an unusual "quiet" compared to every year. Accordingly, the central rate increased by 1.27% compared to the end of 2016. And the exchange rate on the free market decreased by 1.38% (the selling rate), according to the State Bank branch in HCMC. Ho Chi Minh. According to SSI's statistics in the assessment report on the latest interest rate hike by the Fed, the exchange rate remains unchanged on the official market around 22,700 VND / USD, almost unchanged so far.
The reason why the market becomes so peaceful? In the international market, although the Fed tends to narrow monetary policy, the dollar is slightly lower than other currencies. Bloomberg's statistics show that the dollar has depreciated more than 7% against a basket of other major currencies in 2017 and is also the strongest decline in more than a decade.
The supply of USD is plentiful
The weak dollar in the international market also eased the pressure to devalue as we often saw many years ago. But the more important reason, it is because the supply of USD suddenly becomes more abundant than ever.
According to data from the General Department of Customs, by the end of November, Vietnam had a record trade surplus since 2006 (the time of joining the WTO) with 3.72 billion USD. On December 21, 2017, Governor of the State Bank of Vietnam Le Minh Hung said that the foreign exchange reserve fund had reached a record level of 48 billion USD, but in the last days of 2017, a new record was made: 51.5 billion USD. And Mr. Nguyen Hoang Minh, Deputy Director of the State Bank branch in City. Ho Chi Minh City, forecast amount of remittances poured into the city this year is estimated at 5.2 billion USD, up 200 million USD compared to last year.
However, there is still concern, as USD deposit rates in Vietnam have remained at 0% for more than 2 years. Mr. Nguyen Hoang Minh said that the Fed's move of 3 times to raise interest rates and is likely to continue to increase in 2018 has created some certain impacts, including foreign currency bleeding. According to Mr. Minh, experts and business circles should raise USD deposit interest rates to help the banking system take advantage of the greenback.
However, representatives of the State Bank of Ho Chi Minh City. Ho Chi Minh also said that maintaining USD deposit interest rates at 0% has had many positive effects attached, typically many people switch from USD to VND savings.
During the whole year, the liquidity in the bank was stable and did not change much. According to recent observations of SSI, deposit rates started to increase slightly from November and this trend continues in December. “It is a cyclical factor. “Liquidity is a bit volatile in December, but it is mainly a cyclical factor. Banks may need more deposits to improve their safety ratios or to meet credit needs, ”said the SSI report.
In 2018, the Fed maintains tightening monetary policy with the expectation that interest rates will continue to increase by 2 percentage points and 2.5 percentage points in 2019. 2018 is also the time when Fed Chairman Janet Yellen will The seat must be given to Jerome Powell, who is currently voting in agreement with current Fed policies.
Financial markets in 2018 are also expected to be more volatile with more investment products attracting capital flows in the market like cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. However, Ms. Yellen confirmed that the Fed has no plans to consider issuing a similar currency, nor is it that Bitcoin.
submitted by Tommy-Here to u/Tommy-Here [link] [comments]
NOTE: Bitcoin is highly volatile and not a place to invest funds you can’t lose. While there are some stories of people making a fortune on Bitcoin in 2017, many people lost as it fell from its peak. Some people think it is going to be worth $1 million or more while others call the entire system a fraud ready to fall.
I love Bitcoin. I like making money with this cryptocurrency. I work with different platforms, as each one has certain nuances. But most often, I use the one described below. Why? Well, first of all, it is safe to buy with PayPal. Truly anonymous commerce, even registration on the site is not required. In addition to FAQ, each service has a "How it works" button. And what is important for me is the black background of the site because when trading on sites with a white background, my eyes get tired, and vision deteriorates.
So, my favorite combination is Bitcoin to USD using PayPal.
BitcoinCombination is an independent trading community that unites the interests of investors, traders, and entrepreneurs.Where, with the help of the decentralized, integrated bitcoincombination.com platform and the FABC team (which provides the functionality of the BitcoinCombination community capital movement), participants have the opportunity to increase their capital, with complete anonymity of personal data.
Something from the FAQ.
What is bitcoincombination.com?
bitcoincombination.com is a decentralized, anonymous, integrated trading platform.
Do I need to send any documents or pass verification?
No. You use this resource anonymously.
How can I be considered anonymous if I have to enter billing information when buying, investing, or using another service on the website?
The anonymity of platform users is protected by security codes ©sessions technology during authorizations on the website, without using the registration of the users themselves. And also, payments using FABC, and the complete deletion of personal data after the completion of a financial transaction.
Servicesreddit.com, and I decided to dedicate it to not a big website presentation for those who are also passionate about Bitcoin and want to make money on it. If someone is interested in this topic, write your comments. If you have any questions about BitcoinCombination.com, I'll expand on the topic.
By the way, if you want to know the forecast of the Bitcoin rate for the next day, the site has a news subscription. Besides, there is a simple and offer subscription.
Best Places to Buy Bitcoin of 2020
Binance: Best for Low Rates in Other Currencies
BitcoinCombination: Best for safe trading BTC and Low Cost
Coinbase Pro: Best for Active Traders
Coinmama: Best for Quick and Easy Transactions
Localbitcoins: Best for Versatility
Cryptocurrency during recession.submitted by holderlab to Bitcoin [link] [comments]
With this material, we continue the series of articles on the correlation of cryptocurrencies. In the first article, we focused on the correlation of Bitcoin with other coins, in the second article, on the relationship between the cryptocurrency and the traditional market. For a more complete understanding of the topic, we will figure out what factors affect the capitalization of cryptocurrencies.
The inflow of capital to the cryptocurrency market occurs when investors want to ignore all kinds of risks. Otherwise, there is a decline in the market. For many people, this seems like something unrealistic, but the way it really is. This dependence is poorly expressed, but it exists and provides some food for thought when forecasting interest in cryptos.
Let’s try to visualize how investor interest in risk is changing. In the indicator that we show below, we will include the dynamics of changes in the cost of raw materials and gold, the capitalization of the largest stock markets and the level of government bond yield. Using information on mood swings in the market, we will find out how this factor affects the value of “digital gold” (Bitcoin was taken only because it is the main cryptocurrency in the world).
Below you see the corresponding histogram (study period: August 2017 – February 2018). An increase in indicators means a panic in the market and an escape from risk, a decrease in indicators – increased demand for high-risk assets, which in the long run can bring good income.
For greater clarity, a pivot point and a five-day midline are shown (due to the fact that the histogram is not smooth).
The received signals are plotted on a bitcoin chart. We see the following:
We get what we told you above: Bitcoin fluctuations correlate with fluctuations in market sentiment. Another interesting point that for some reason no one pays attention to is that investors consider Bitcoin a protective asset. Let’s talk more about this phenomenon.
A defensive asset is an asset where investors transfer their capital during financial turmoil. The main goal of this action is to protect capital from serious losses and wait out the period of time during which the market falls. Many people know that one of the most protected assets are gold, currencies of financially stable countries (for example, Switzerland or Japan), bonds. Most often, a capital during financial shocks goes there. The cryptocurrency market, in turn, is considered by some to be more risky, but at the same time more profitable, which is undoubtedly important for investors. However, this is a slightly false statement. Bitcoin’s behavior is the opposite. If an investor sees a danger to his assets in the form of, for example, a slowdown in the global economy or the prerequisites for a financial crisis, he will transfer his capital to Bitcoin. Cryptocurrency during recession
In previous articles, we proved that cryptocurrencies have a positive correlation. This tells us that the entire cryptocurrency market will grow with external problems.
To summarize the above, we note that big capital sees a protective platform in the cryptocurrencies market where it is possible to preserve and even increase its savings during a period of financial instability and it can be probably in cryptocurrency during a recession. The cryptocurrency market is the real antagonist of the modern financial system, so if you see that a serious financial cataclysm is approaching, then this is another reason to think about transferring funds to this area.
This article is not a recommendation for investment or investment in cryptocurrency, as well as perceived as investment advice. Be careful, because investing in cryptocurrencies is very risky and you need to consult with your financial advisor. Past earnings do not guarantee future earnings.
Holderlab.io is a fully automated cryptocurrency portfolio management laboratory. Analysis the cryptocurrencies correlation, searching for the optimal cryptocurrency portfolio weights. Uses crypto trading bots and the auto efficient crypto portfolio index.
submitted by crypt0hodl1 to PundiX [link] [comments]
PrologueThis is a Concept Paper written to introduce the Function X Ecosystem, which includes the XPhone. It also addresses the relationship between the XPOS and Function X.
Pundi X has always been a community-driven project. We have lived by the mission of making sure the community comes first and we are constantly learning from discussions and interactions on social media and in real-life meetings.
As with all discussions, there is always background noise but we have found gems in these community discussions. One such example is a question which we found constantly lingering at the back of our mind, “Has blockchain changed the world as the Internet did in the ’90s, and the automobile in the ‘20s?”. Many might argue that it has, given the rise of so many blockchain projects with vast potential in different dimensions (like ours, if we may add). But the question remains, “can blockchain ever become what the Internet, as we know it today, has to the world?”
Function X, a universal decentralized internet which is powered by blockchain technology and smart devices.
Over the past few months, in the process of implementing and deploying the XPOS solution, we believe we found the answer to the question. A nimble development team was set up to bring the answer to life. We discovered that it is indeed possible to bring blockchain to the world of telephony, data transmission, storage and other industries; a world far beyond financial transactions and transfers.
This is supported by end-user smart devices functioning as blockchain nodes. These devices include the XPOS and XPhone developed by Pundi X and will also include many other hardware devices manufactured by other original equipment manufacturers.
The vision we want to achieve for f(x) is to create a fully autonomous and decentralized network that does not rely on any individual, organization or structure.
Due to the nature of the many new concepts introduced within this Concept Paper, we have included a Q&A after each segment to facilitate your understanding. We will continuously update this paper to reflect the progress we’re making.
Function X: The Internet was just the beginningThe advent of the Internet has revolutionized the world. It created a communications layer so robust that it has resulted in TCP/IP becoming the network standard.
The Internet also created a wealth of information so disruptive that a company like Amazon threatened to wipe out all the traditional brick-and-mortar bookstores. These bookstores were forced to either adapt or perish. The same applies to the news publishing sector: the offerings of Google and Facebook have caused the near extinction of traditional newspapers.
The digitalization of the world with the Internet has enabled tech behemoths like Apple, Amazon, Google and Facebook to dominate and rule over traditional companies. The grip of these tech giants is so extensive that it makes you wonder if the choices you make are truly your own or influenced by the data they have on you as a user.
We see the blockchain revolution happening in three phases. The first was how Bitcoin showed the world what digital currency is. The second refers to how Ethereum has provided a platform to build decentralized assets easily. The clearest use case of that has come in the form of the thousands of altcoins seen today that we all are familiar with. The third phase is what many blockchain companies are trying to do now: 1) to bring the performance of blockchain to a whole new level (transaction speed, throughput, sharding, etc.) and 2) to change the course of traditional industries and platforms—including the Internet and user dynamics.
Public blockchains allow trustless transactions. If everything can be transacted on the blockchain in a decentralized manner, the information will flow more efficiently than traditional offerings, without the interception of intermediators. It will level the playing field and prevent data monopolization thus allowing small innovators to develop and flourish by leveraging the resources and data shared on the blockchain.
The Blockchain revolution will be the biggest digital revolutionIn order to displace an incumbent technology with something new, we believe the change and improvement which the new technology has to bring will have to be at least a tenfold improvement on all aspects including speed, transparency, scalability and governance (consensus). We are excited to say that the time for this 10-times change is here. It’s time to take it up 10x with Function X.
Function X or f(x) is an ecosystem built entirely on and for the blockchain. Everything in f(x) (including the application source code, transmission protocol and hardware) is completely decentralized and secure. Every bit and byte in f(x) is part of the blockchain.
What we have developed is not just a public chain. It is a total decentralized solution. It consists of five core components: Function X Operating System (OS); Function X distributed ledger (Blockchain); Function X IPFS; FXTP Protocol and Function X Decentralized Docker. All five components serve a single purpose which is to decentralize all services, apps, websites, communications and, most importantly, data.
The purpose of Function X OS is to allow smart hardware and IoTs to harness the upside and potential utility of the decentralization approach. We have built an in-house solution for how mobile phones can leverage Function X OS in the form of the XPhone. Other companies can also employ the Function X OS and further customize it for their own smart devices. Every smart device in the Function X ecosystem can be a node and each will have its own address and private key, uniquely linked to their node names. The OS is based on the Android OS 9.0, therefore benefiting from backward compatibility with Android apps. The Function X OS supports Android apps and Google services (referred to as the traditional mode), as well as the newly developed decentralized services (referred to as the blockchain mode). Other XPhone features powered by the Function X OS will be elaborated on in the following sections.
Using the Function X Ecosystem (namely Function X FXTP), the transmission of data runs on a complex exchange of public and private key data and encryption but never through a centralized intermediary. Hence it guarantees communication without interception and gives users direct access to the data shared by others. Any information that is sent or transacted over the Function X Blockchain will also be recorded on the chain and fully protected by encryption so the ownesender has control over data sharing. And that is how a decentralized system for communications works.
For developers and users transitioning to the Function X platform, it will be a relatively seamless process. We have intentionally designed the process of creating and publishing new decentralized applications (DApps) on Function X to be easy, such that the knowledge and experience from developing and using Android will be transferable. With that in mind, a single line of code in most traditional apps can be modified, and developers can have their transmission protocol moved from the traditional HTTP mode (centralized) to a decentralized mode, thus making the transmission “ownerless” because data can transmit through the network of nodes without being blocked by third parties. How services can be ported easily or built from scratch as DApps will also be explained in the following sections, employing technologies in the Function X ecosystem (namely Function X IPFS, FXTP Protocol and Decentralized Docker).
f(x) Chainf(x) chain is a set of consensus algorithms in the form of a distributed ledger, as part of the Function X ecosystem. The blockchain is the building block of our distributed ledger that stores and verifies transactions including financials, payments, communications (phone calls, file transfers, storage), services (DApps) and more.
Will Function X launch a mainnet?Yes. The f(x) chain is a blockchain hence there will be a mainnet.
When will the testnet be launched?Q2 2019 (projected).
When will the mainnet be launched?Q3 2019 (projected).
How is the Function X blockchain designed?The f(x) chain is designed based on the philosophy that any blockchain should be able to address real-life market demand of a constantly growing peer-to-peer network. It is a blockchain with high throughput achieved with a combination of decentralized hardware support (XPOS, XPhone, etc.) and open-source software toolkit enhancements.
What are the physical devices that will be connected to the Function X blockchain?In due course, the XPOS OS will be replaced by the f(x) OS. On the other hand, the XPhone was designed with full f(x) OS integration in mind, from the ground up. After the f(x) OS onboarding, and with adequate stability testings and improvements, XPOS and XPhone will then be connected to the f(x) Chain.
What are the different elements of a block?Anything that is transmittable over the distributed network can be stored in the block, including but not limited to phone call records, websites, data packets, source code, etc. It is worth noting that throughout these processes, all data is encrypted and only the owner of the private key has the right to decide how the data should be shared, stored, decrypted or even destroyed.
Which consensus mechanism is used?
Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT).
What are the other implementations of Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT)?Flight systems that require very low latency. For example, SpaceX’s flight system, Dragon, uses PBFT design philosophy. [Appendix]
How do you create a much faster public chain?We believe in achieving higher speed, thus hardware and software configurations matter. If your hardware is limited in numbers or processing power, this will limit the transaction speed which may pose security risks. The Ethereum network consists of about 25,000 nodes spread across the globe now, just two years after it was launched. Meanwhile, the Bitcoin network currently has around 7,000 nodes verifying the network. As for Pundi X, with the deployment plan (by us and our partners) for XPOS, XPhone and potentially other smart devices, we anticipate that we will be able to surpass the number of Bitcoin and Ethereum nodes within 1 to 2 years. There are also plans for a very competitive software implementation of our public blockchain, the details for which we will be sharing in the near future.
f(x) OSThe f(x) OS is an Android-modified operating system that is also blockchain-compatible. You can switch seamlessly between the blockchain and the traditional mode. In the blockchain mode, every bit and byte is fully decentralized including your calls, messages, browsers and apps. When in traditional mode, the f(x) OS supports all Android features.
Android is the most open and advanced operating system for smart hardware with over 2 billion monthly active users. Using Android also fits into our philosophy of being an OS/software designer and letting third-party hardware makers produce the hardware for the Function X Ecosystem.
What kind of open source will it be?This has not been finalized, but the options we are currently considering are Apache or GNU GPLv3.
What kind of hardware will it work on?The f(x) OS works on ARM architecture, hence it works on most smartphones, tablet computers, smart TVs, Android Auto and smartwatches in the market.
Will you build a new browser?We are currently using a modified version of the Google Chrome browser. The browser supports both HTTP and FXTP, which means that apart from distributed FXTP contents, users can view traditional contents, such ashttps://www.google.com.
What is the Node Name System (NNS)?A NNS is a distributed version of the traditional Domain Name System. A NNS allows every piece of Function X hardware, including the XPhone, to have a unique identity. This identity will be the unique identifier and can be called anything with digits and numbers, such as ‘JohnDoe2018’ or ‘AliceBob’. More on NNS in the following sections.
Will a third-party device running the f(x) OS be automatically connected to the f(x) blockchain?
Yes, third-party devices will be connected to the f(x) blockchain automatically.
f(x) FXTPA transmission protocol defines the rules to allow information to be sent via a network. On the Internet, HTTP is a transmission protocol that governs how information such as website contents can be sent, received and displayed. FXTP is a transmission protocol for the decentralized network.
FXTP is different from HTTP because it is an end-to-end transmission whereby your data can be sent, received and displayed based on a consensus mechanism rather than a client-server based decision-making mechanism. In HTTP, the server (which is controlled by an entity) decides how and if the data is sent (or even monitored), whereas in FXTP, the data is sent out and propagates to the destination based on consensus.
HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client-server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server. FXTP functions as a propagation protocol via a consensus model. A node that propagates the protocol and its packet content is both a “client” and a “server”, hence whether a packet reaches a destination is not determined by any intermediate party and this makes it more secure.
f(x) IPFSIPFS is a protocol and network designed to store data in a distributed system. A person who wants to retrieve a file will call an identifier (hash) of the file, IPFS then combs through the other nodes and supplies the person with the file.
The file is stored on the IPFS network. If you run your own node, your file would be stored only on your node and available for the world to download. If someone else downloads it and seeds it, then the file will be stored on both your node the node of the individual who downloaded it (similar to BitTorrent).
IPFS is decentralized and more secure, which allows faster file and data transfer.
f(x) DDockerDocker is computer program designed to make it easier to create, deploy, and run applications. Containers allow a developer to package up an application including libraries, and ship it all out as a package.
As the name suggests, Decentralized Docker is an open platform for developers to build, ship and run distributed applications. Developers will be able to store, deploy and run their codes remote in different locations and the codes are secure in a decentralized way.
Beyond crypto: First true blockchain phone that is secured and decentralized to the coreXPhone is the world’s first blockchain phone which is designed with innovative features that are not found on other smartphones.
Powered by Function X, an ecosystem built entirely on and for the blockchain, XPhone runs on a new transmission protocol for the blockchain age. The innovation significantly expands the use of blockchain technology beyond financial transfers.
Unlike traditional phones which require a centralized service provider, XPhone runs independently without the need for that. Users can route phone calls and messages via blockchain nodes without the need for phone numbers.
Once the XPhone is registered on the network, for e.g., by a user named Pitt, if someone wants to access Pitt’s publicly shared data or content, that user can just enter FXTP://xxx.Pitt. This is similar to what we do for the traditional https:// protocol.
Whether Pitt is sharing photos, data, files or a website, they can be accessed through this path. And if Pitt’s friends would like to contact him, they can call, text or email his XPhone simply by entering “call.pitt”, “message.pitt”, or “mail.pitt”.
The transmission of data runs on a complex exchange of public and private key data with encryption. It can guarantee communication without interception and gives users direct access to the data shared by others. Any information that is sent or transacted over the Function X Blockchain will also be recorded on the chain.
Toggle between now and the futureBlockchain-based calling and messaging can be toggled on and off on the phone operating system which is built on Android 9.0. XPhone users can enjoy all the blockchain has to offer, as well as the traditional functionalities of an Android smartphone.
We’ll be sharing more about the availability of the XPhone and further applications of Function X in the near future.
DApps for mass adoptionSo far the use of decentralized applications has been disappointing. But what if there was a straightforward way to bring popular, existing apps into a decentralized environment, without rebuilding everything? Until now, much of what we call peer-to-peer or ‘decentralized’ services continue to be built on centralized networks. We set out to change that with Function X; to disperse content now stored in the hands of the few, and to evolve services currently controlled by central parties.
Use Cases: Sharing economyAs seen from our ride-hailing DApp example that was demonstrated in New York back in November 2018, moving towards true decentralization empowers the providers of services and not the intermediaries. In the same way, the XPhone returns power to users over how their data is being shared and with whom. Function X will empower content creators to determine how their work is being displayed and used.
Use Cases: Free namingOne of the earliest alternative cryptocurrencies, Namecoin, wanted to use a blockchain to provide a name registration system, where users can register their names to create a unique identity. It is similar to the DNS system mapping to IP addresses. With the Node Name System (NNS) it is now possible to do this on the blockchain.
NNS is a distributed version of the traditional Domain Name System. A NNS allows every piece of Function X hardware, including the XPhone, to have a unique identifier that can be named anything with digits and numbers, such as ‘JohnDoe2018’ or ‘AliceBob’.
Use Cases: Mobile data currencyAccording to a study, mobile operator data revenues are estimated at over $600 billion USD by 2020, equivalent to $50 billion USD per month [appendix]. Assuming users are able to use services such as blockchain calls provided by XPhone (or other phones using Function X) the savings will be immense and the gain from profit can be passed on to providers such as DApp developers in Function X. In other words, instead of paying hefty bills to a mobile carrier for voice calls, users can pay less by making blockchain calls, and the fees paid are in f(x) coins. More importantly users will have complete privacy over their calls.
Use Cases: Decentralized file storage
Ethereum contracts claim to allow for the development of a decentralized file storage ecosystem, “where individual users can earn small quantities of money by renting out their own hard drives and unused space can be used to further drive down the costs of file storage.” However, they do not necessarily have the hardware to back this up. With the deployment of XPOS, smart hardware nodes and more, Function X is a natural fit for Decentralized File Storage. In fact, it is basically what f(x) IPFS is built for.
These are just four examples of the many use cases purported, and there can, will and should be more practical applications beyond these; we are right in the middle of uncharted territories.
Decentralized and autonomousThe f(x) ecosystem is fully decentralized. It’s designed and built to run autonomously in perpetuity without the reliance or supervision of any individual or organization. To support this autonomous structure, f(x) Coin which is the underlying ‘currency’ within the f(x) ecosystem has to be decentralized in terms of its distribution, allocation, control, circulation and the way it’s being generated.
To get the structure of f(x) properly set up, the founding team will initially act as ‘initiators’ and ‘guardians’ of the ecosystem. The role of the team will be similar to being a gatekeeper to prevent any bad actors or stakeholders playing foul. At the same time, the team will facilitate good players to grow within the ecosystem. Once the f(x) ecosystem is up and running, the role of the founding team will be irrelevant and phased out. The long term intention of the team is to step away, allowing the ecosystem to run and flourish by itself.
UtilityIn this section, we will explore the utility of the f(x) Coin. f(x) Coin is the native ‘currency’ of the Function X blockchain and ecosystem. All services rendered in the ecosystem will be processed, transacted with, or “fueled” by the f(x) Coin. Some of the proposed use cases include:
Example 1: A developer creates a ride-hailing DApp called DUber.
DUber developer first uploads the image and data to IPFS (storage) and code to DDocker, respectively. The developer then pays for a decentralized code hosting service provided by the DDocker, and a decentralized file hosting service provided by the IPFS. Please note the storage hosting and code hosting services can be provided by a company, or by a savvy home user with smart nodes connected to the Function X ecosystem. Subsequently, a DUber user pays the developer.
Example 2: User Alice sends an imaginary token called ABCToken to Bob.
ABCToken is created using Function X smart contract. Smart nodes hosted at the home of Charlie help confirms the transaction, Charlie is paid by Alice (or both Alice and Bob).
The flow of f(x) CoinFour main participants in f(x): Consumer (blue), Developer (blue), Infrastructure (blue), and Financial Service Provider (green)
Broadly speaking, there can be four main participants in the f(x) ecosystem, exhibited by the diagram above:
Figure: four main participants of the ecosystem The rationale behind f(x) Coin generation is the Proof of Service concept (PoS)Service providers are crucial in the whole f(x) Ecosystem, the problem of motivation/facilitation has become our priority. We have to align our interests with theirs. Hence, we have set up a Tipping Jar (similar to mining) to motivate and facilitate the existing miners shift to the f(x) Ecosystem and become part of the infrastructure service provider or attract new players into our ecosystem. Income for service provider = Service fee (from payer) + Tipping (from f(x) network generation)
The idea is that the f(x) blockchain will generate a certain amount of f(x) Coin (diminishing annually) per second to different segments of service provider, such as in the 1st year, the f(x) blockchain will generate 3.5 f(x) Coin per second and it will be distributed among the infrastructure service provider through the Proof of Service concept. Every service provider such as infrastructure service providers, developers and financial service providers will receive a ‘certificate’ of Proof of Service in the blockchain after providing the service and redeeming the f(x) Coin.
Example: There are 3 IPFS providers in the market, and the total Tipping Jar for that specific period is 1 million f(x) Coin. Party A contributes 1 TB; Party B contributes 3 TB and Party C contributes 6 TB. So, Party A will earn 1/10 * 1 million = 100k f(x) Coin; Party B will earn 3/10 * 1 million = 300k f(x) Coin. Party C will earn 6/10 * 1 million = 600k f(x) Coin.
Note: The computation method of the distribution of the Tipping Jar might vary due to the differences in the nature of the service, period and party.
Figure: Circulation flow of f(x) Coin
The theory behind the computation.Blockchain has integrated almost everything, such as storage, scripts, nodes and communication. This requires a large amount of bandwidth and computation resources which affects the transaction speed and concurrency metric.
In order to do achieve the goal of being scalable with high transaction speed, the f(x) blockchain has shifted out all the ‘bulky’ and ‘heavy duty’ functions onto other service providers, such as IPFS, FXTP, etc. We leave alone what blockchain technology does best: Calibration. Thus, the role of the Tipping Jar is to distribute the appropriate tokens to all participants.
Projected f(x) Coin distribution per second in the first year
According to Moore’s Law, the number of transistors in a densely integrated circuit doubles about every 18 -24 months. Thus, the performance of hardware doubles every 18-24 months. Taking into consideration Moore’s Law, Eric Schmidt said if you maintain the same hardware specs, the earnings will be cut in half after 18-24 months. Therefore, the normal Tipping Jar (reward) for an infrastructure service provider will decrease 50% every 18 months. In order to encourage infrastructure service providers to upgrade their hardware, we have set up another iteration and innovation contribution pool (which is worth of 50% of the normal Tipping Jar on the corresponding phase) to encourage the infrastructure service provider to embrace new technology.
According to the Andy-Bill’s law, “What Andy gives, Bill takes away”; software will always nibble away the extra performance of the hardware. The more performance a piece of hardware delivers, the more the software consumes. Thus, the developer will always follow the trend to maintain and provide high-quality service. The Tipping Jar will increase by 50% (based upon the previous quota) every 18 months.
Financial service providers will have to support the liquidation of the whole ecosystem along the journey, the Tipping Jar (FaaS) will increase by 50% by recognizing the contribution and encouraging innovation.
From the 13th year (9th phase), the Tipping Jar will reduce by 50% every 18 months. We are well aware that the “cliff drop” after the 12th year is significant. Hence, we have created a 3year (two-phase) diminishing transition period. The duration of each phase is 18 months. There are 10 phases in total which will last for a total of 15 years.
According to Gartner’s report, the blockchain industry is forecast to reach a market cap of
3.1 trillion USD in 2030. Hence, we believe a Tipping Jar of 15 years will allow the growth of Function X into the “mature life cycle” of the blockchain industry.
f(x) Coin / Token AllocationToken allocation We believe great blockchain projects attempt to equitably balance the interests of different segments of the community. We hope to motivate and incentivize token holders by allocating a total of 65% of tokens from the Token Generation Event (TGE). Another 20% is allocated to the Ecosystem Genesis Fund for developer partnerships, exchanges and other such related purposes. The remaining 15% will go to engineering, product development and marketing. There will be no public or private sales for f(x) tokens.
NPXS / NPXSXEM is used to make crypto payments as easy as buying bottled water, while f(x) is used for the operation of a decentralized ecosystem and blockchain, consisting of DApps and other services. NPXS / NPXSXEM will continue to have the same functionality and purpose after the migration to the Function X blockchain in the future. Therefore, each token will be expected to assume different fundamental roles and grant different rights to the holders.
65% of allocation for NPXS / NPXSXEM holders is broken down into the following: 15% is used for staking (see below) 45% is used for conversion to f(x) tokens. (see below) 5% is used for extra bonus tasks over 12 months (allocation TBD).
Remarks All NPXS / NPXSXEM tokens that are converted will be removed from the total supply of NPXS / NPXSXEM; Pundi X will not convert company's NPXS for f(x) Tokens. This allocation is designed for NPXS/NPXSXEM long term holders. NPXS / NPXSXEM tokens that are converted will also be entitled to the 15% f(x) Token distribution right after the conversion.
UsageManagement of the Ecosystem Genesis Fund (EGF)
The purpose of setting up the Ecosystem Initialization Fund, is to motivate, encourage and facilitate service providers to join and root into the f(x) Ecosystem and, at the same time, to attract seed consumers to enrich and enlarge the f(x) Ecosystem. EIF comes from funds raised and will be used as a bootstrap mechanism to encourage adoption before the Tipping Jar incentives fully kicks in.
The EGF is divided into 5 parts:
SummaryTime moves fast in the technology world and even faster in the blockchain space. Pundi X’s journey started in October 2017, slightly over a year ago, and we have been operating at a lightning pace ever since, making progress that can only be measured in leaps and bounds. We started as a blockchain payment solution provider and have evolved into a blockchain service provider to make blockchain technology more accessible to the general public, thereby improving your everyday life.
The creation of Function X was driven by the need to create a better suited platform for our blockchain point-of sale network and through that process, the capabilities of Function X have allowed us to extend blockchain usage beyond finance applications like payment solutions and cryptocurrency.
The complete decentralized ecosystem of Function X will change and benefit organizations, developers, governments and most importantly, society as a whole.
The XPhone prototype which we have created is just the start to give everyone a taste of the power of Function X on how you can benefit from a truly decentralized environment. We envision a future where the XPOS, XPhone and other Function X-enabled devices work hand-in-hand to make the decentralized autonomous ecosystem a reality.
You may wonder how are we able to create such an extensive ecosystem within a short span of time? We are fortunate that in today’s open source and sharing economy, we are able to tap onto the already established protocols (such as Consensus algorithm, FXTP, etc), software (like Android, IPFS, PBFT, Dockers, etc.) and hardware (design knowledge from existing experts) which were developed by selfless generous creators. Function X puts together, aggregates and streamlines all the benefits and good of these different elements and make them work better and seamlessly on the blockchain. And we will pay it forward by making Function X as open and as decentralized as possible so that others may also use Function X to create bigger and better projects.
To bring Function X to full fruition, we will continue to operate in a transparent and collaborative way. Our community will continue to be a key pillar for us and be even more vital as we get Function X up and running. As a community member, you will have an early access to the Function X ecosystem through the f(x) token conversion.
We hope you continue to show your support as we are working hard to disrupt the space and re-engineer this decentralized world.
ReferencePractical Byzantine Fault Tolerance
Byzantine General Problem technical paper
Global mobile data revenues to reach $630 billion by 2020
NPXSXEM token supply
NPXS circulating token supply and strategic purchaser
[total supply might differ from time to time due to token taken out of total supply aka “burn”]
ELC: SpaceX lessons learned (PBFT mentioned) https://lwn.net/Articles/540368/
When discussing the crypto market, people often pay attention to its high volatility. For some volatility is a scary part of investing and buying ‘the future of money’. For others, it is a chance of getting hilariously rich. So why is cryptocurrency volatility such a big deal? Is it good or bad? Today we will try to explain it. What does volatility mean?submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]
In the simplest terms, volatility is a mathematical tool or index by which we measure the price movements over time for a traded financial instrument or asset.
Usually, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is calculated within a specific period: a week, a month or a year. On the basis of monthly or yearly volatility, it is already possible to draw some conclusions and make forecasts on trading strategies.
The rates of any of the assets, including crypto are rarely stable. It is usually influenced by demand and supply from ordinary customers and investors, traders, economic and political situations and so on. Of course, compared to traditional assets, the volatility of cryptocurrencies is really high. The average annual volatility of fiat currencies usually does not exceed 3–4%. On the other hand, for example, is Bitcoin which experienced massive growth in 2017, growing from $700 to almost $20.000. That’s a staggering 27.000% rate of return in merely 12 months.
So what are the main factors causing the volatility in the crypto world?
As you can see volatility is an important aspect of cryptocurrencies, but actually, it is a double-edged sword.
Almost everyone speaks about the volatility of crypto coins in a negative tone because, in the traditional economy, high volatility is more of a negative than a positive indicator. However, the volatility of the cryptocurrency world has its own advantages. Mainly for traders in the crypto market, because one transaction can bring lots of profit. Thanks to this, many traders will continue entering the cryptocurrency market. Also, high volatility increases trading volumes and ultimately contributes to the popularity of crypto coins.
On the other hand, it, of course, has disadvantages:
High risks. Simply put, if the currency rates are swinging so much, where is the guarantee that one day it will not fall to the minimum values? These risks push business away from crypto transactions.
Unpredictability. Nowadays it is very difficult to say how much and why the crypto rate will fall and grow.
The crypto market is still trying to find its way. No doubt that cryptocurrencies will become more widespread in all spheres of our life. Nowadays, developers are trying to solve the problem of volatility by creating Stablecoins. But it would be a stretch to say that these alternative cryptocurrencies will be the entire future of cryptocurrencies. Probably after the recognition at the state level and the protection of investors participating in the ICO, longer-term players will start entering the crypto market and the volatility of rates will decrease.
How are you dealing with the volatility of crypto coins? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below!
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get StealthEX.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world.
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